Allergic disorders in children living in different climatic and oecological areas of the Kaliningrad region

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Abstract

The immune system responsible for genetic stability of internal environment, with its exceptional sensitivity, may provide biological indexes which reflect impact of various environmental (biotic and abiotic) factors, i.e., serve as an indicator system in the areas of environmental well-being and distress. A series of studies on the influence of climatic and environmental factors on immune reactivity states demonstrated that the immune system is also sensitive to both natural and industrial factors (chemical and physical). Apparently, this is due to formation of a population-based immunological reactivity adapted for specific environmental conditions. However, the distribution patterns of immunogram variability by geographical zones are still unclear. The article analyzes prevalence and structure of allergic disorders in children of 1-3 and 4-7 y.o. (early and first childhood)living in different climatic and ecological areas of Kaliningrad region (coastal and continental zones, “clean” and “dirty” cities, different for anthropogenic burden and environmental situation). The following cities were involved into the study: Svetlogorsk, Svetly, Kaliningrad, Sovetsk, Gusev and Neman. There were 3,321 children examined. Clinical and demographic data were taken from the following sources: “History of the child’s development” (Form No. 112/y), “Outpatient medical record card” (Form No. 025/y) and “Diagnostic card of immunological deficiency in children”, developed at the Institute of Immunology (Federal Medical&Biological Agency of Russia) which contained the patient’s data, seasonality of increased morbidity, vaccination history, acute infections). Disorders and reactions attributable to allergic syndrome were divided into three groups: skin diseases, respiratory system diseases, adverse response to various antigens. The revealed differences demonstrate high sensitivity of immune system to climatic and environmental factors acting at the sub-threshold level. We believe that the child’s immune system responds even to minor environmental factors, which, acting in combined manner, cause its functional shifts. In turn, these changes manifest at the level of immunobiological reactivity and, accordingly, influence clinical course and symptoms of the allergic disorders.

About the authors

A. Z. Markhaichuk

Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University

Email: alesja.gorbynova@gmail.com

Postgraduate Student, Institute of Medicine

Kaliningrad 

Russian Federation

A. Y. Gorbunova

Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University

Author for correspondence.
Email: alesja.gorbynova@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8200-8094

Clinical Resident, Institute of Medicine

Kaliningrad 

54000, Ukraine, Nikolaev, Serebrych str., 23

Phone: +380 994 38-03-23 

Ukraine

D. A. Sidorova

Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University

Email: alesja.gorbynova@gmail.com

 Clinical Resident, Institute of Medicine

Kaliningrad 

Russian Federation

A. S. Razina

Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University

Email: alesja.gorbynova@gmail.com

 Clinical Resident, Institute of Medicine

Kaliningrad 

Russian Federation

E. A. Goncharova

Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University

Email: alesja.gorbynova@gmail.com

 Student, Institute of Medicine

Kaliningrad 

Russian Federation

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Copyright (c) 2021 Markhaichuk A.Z., Gorbunova A.Y., Sidorova D.A., Razina A.S., Goncharova E.A.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ПИ № 77 - 11525 от 04.01.2002 выдано Федеральной службой по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций (Роскомнадзор).


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